An Editorial Comment
by Otto Diederichs
In February of 1992, the FRG plans also to ratify the so-called Schengen Ac-cord, which will open the internal borders of the EC beginning on January 1, 1993. Police strategists and security policy-makers fear a security loss due to the loss of border checkpoints and are preparing „flanking measures“ which will have their effects on citizens. These will particularly pertain to so-called citizens of third countries and refugees appearing at the „hard outer shell“ of the Schengen states. This issue of CILIP illuminates some of the facets of future security policies.
Emigration Based on Poverty is not a Police Matter
by Jürgen Gottschlich
On August 10th, 1991 „all hell broke loose“ in Bari, Italy: Thousands of Al-banian refugees who had been cremmed into „la Vittoria“ stadium stormed the gates. A flood of refugees raced through the city and made a desperate attempt to escape from the police pursuing them. Western Europe had received its first preview of what can happen if rich Europeans do not become willing to share their wealth with the impoverished peoples of the world. It does not, however, appear as if they are going to develop this willingness, for even before the drama in Bari unfolded, politicians were already at work preparing to seal off the outer borders of the EC from undesired trespassers.
The Schengen Agreement
by Heiner Busch
In 1985, the Ministers of the Interior and Justice of the Benelux states, France and the Federal Republic signed the initial Schengen Agreement, an administrative agreement governing the revision of border control procedures between the countries involved and paved the way for a second agreement which would ultimatly abolish the border controls along the common interior frontiers of these countries and make provisions for simultaneous compensatory measures. This so-called Schengen Supplementary Agreement, which was signed on June 19th, 1990, but has only been ratified by France to date, has, in the meantime also been signed by Portugal, Spain and Italy.
Schengen in the Netherlands
by Peter Klerks
Independent other their party allegiance, all of the governments of the Ne-therlands have been friends of the concept of Europe, a fact most readily ex-plained by the interests of a small trade-oriented country’s interest in main-taining good relations with its politically and economically more powerful neighbours. Within the Benelux economic union, the Netherlands assumed a pioneering role in moving toward international police cooperation as far back as the 50’s and 60’s. At present, preparations for increased European coope-ration are moving ahead full force. This will have lasting effects on the tra-ditional structures of the police system in the Netherlands.
The UK and the Schengen Accord
by Tony Bunyan
The UK is one of four members of the European Community which have lected not to join the Schengen Accord. The author points to the reasons for this relucatance, citing, among others, the particular penchant on the part of UK government for dealing with security matters with a very closely held hand, thus preferring inter-governmental cooperation to formal agreements which become more prone to parliamentary review. In the author’s view, it also involves a lack of faith in the ability of the other members of the accord to effectively seal off their outer boundaries from penetration by undesired elements such as Third World economic refugees, terrorists and drug dealers, which, in the view of another commentator quoted by the author, reflects a general willingness to develop this new line of racist thinking on the part of policy-makers which,in equating immigrants with refugees with terrorists with drug-runners, has provided the fuel for the racism now cropping up in the towns and cities of the new Europe.
Spain on the Path to Police Europe
by Heiner Busch
On June 25th, 1991 one year after the signing of the Schengen Supplementary Accord by the initial five states, Spain has also joined the accord and is now preparing to become a full-fledged member of Police Europe. New ID cards capable of being automatically read which had been announced during the Seventies will now begin being issued at every renewal of an old ID card or issuance of a new one. Even date protection legislation – a prerequisite for participating in the Schengen Information System (SIS) – is in the making, which, according to critics in a newly founded data-protection association, is even worse than the current situation. And also in its aliens‘ and asylum po-licies Spain is following the path to the Fortress Europe.
by Otto Diederichs
In 1914, police experts from 24 countries gathered together in Monaco to discuss the creation of an „International Crime and Police File“. World War I brought an end to these plans. Yet, as soon as the war ended efforts towards such a goal were resumed and in 1923 the decision was made to create the „International Criminal-Police Commission“. This was the nucleus of what was later to become Interpol. The article presents the foundations and re-sponsibilities of the ICPO-Interpol and asks some relevant question regarding the future prospects for the organization in view of widespread efforts to establish Western European search agencies within the frame of the Schengen Accords.
by Otto Diederichs
Before the background of attacks by Palestinian and other Western European groups, the European Council made the decision in December of 1975 to establish a body for consultation on matters of domestic security and public safety. From the very beginning, it was clear that this agency would not be subject to the control of the European Parliament. And thus it came about that this body called TREVI (i.e. terrorism, radicalism, extremism, violence international) evolved into one of the most decisive secret cabinets in matters of domestic security and will certainly attain new significance before the background of the Schengen Accord.
ECA, EDIU and EUROPOL
by Norbert Pütter
In June of 1991 at its meeting in Luxemburg, the European Council approved the creation of a European Drug Intelligence Unit (EDIU). This was the latest step along the path toward creating a central European Crime Agency. The article describes what preceded the Luxemburg decision as well as the efforts of particularly German security policy-makers to establish a European Police Agency. The German proposals for a European domestic security policy make it evident that the EDIU is only the first step toward a European Detective Agency with executive authority.
Europol and Data Protection
by Thilo Weichert
During the Seventies several European countries had already begun to set up transnational connections to their respective national object-search data-banks. This trend has increased in conjunction with the negotiations on the Schengen Accord. All informational measures – which are dealt with in detail in the article – pursue the expressly declared goal of creating common organi-sational units with ultimately compulsory executive authority. As chaotic as the police structures being striven for appear on the surface, so completely uncoordinated are the present European data-protection regulations in reality. This aspect is also dealt with in detail in this survey article.
by Otto Diederichs
Immediately after World War II came to an end high-ranking police officers from the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany in the Aachen border region re-established contacts with each other. In 1947 the Belgians joined the club, which, in 1979 became a registered association under the name of „Working Association of the Chiefs of the Netherlands, Belgian and German Police in the Aachen Border Region“ (NEBEDEAG-Pol). From the very beginning the association pursued the goal of improving police cooperation the exchange of experience. The work and goals of this NEBEDEAG-Pol, comprised of a total of 28 leadership officials from the three countries have gained new significance during the course of negotiations in conjunction with the Schengen Agreements.
by Bernhard Gill
Although genetic fingerprinting is still legally, politically and scientifically a highly controversial question, both the police and the courts are creating facts on a day-to-day basis. Throughout the world more and more labo-ratories are even using, among others, unsophisticated molecular-genetic techniques in an attempt to link human secretions such as blood and sperm to those individuals who „left the tracks“. Theoretically, this will make it possible to establish gene data-banks. The automated image recognition tech-niques and automated comparison procedures used in the analysis of incomparably more highly complex dactylographic structures such as traditional fingerprints are nearing perfection.
Spare Time Police
by Torsten Mandalka
Since 1961, Westberlin has had its own „Voluntary Police Reserves“ which were created in response to the creation of the Factory Fighting Groups in the GDR. In 1963 the West German state of Baden-Württemberg followed suit: Upon the initiative of its Minister of the Interior, Filbinger, interested citizens were given the opportunity to serves a term of duty in the „Volun-tary Police Service“. Two further European countries, however, can look back on an even older tradition of amateur police experience: In the Netherlands they have been in existence since the late Forties, and in Great Britain the „Special Constables“ have been in existence since 1831.
New Focal Points of FRG Police Aid
by Heiner Busch
Up until the end of the Eighties, Latin America and the Caribean countries – with the exception of Guatemala and Costa Rica – had hardly received police aid from the Federal Republic. However, since German drug warriors have increasingly begun to fix their sights on South American cocain, the focal points of police aid have already begun to shift. The same holds true for the states of the former Eastern bloc, even if for quite different reasons. The author provides a detailed account of the projected 1992 FRG police and mili-tary aid budget totalling 206 million German marks.
In addition, this issue also includes: an interview with the Düsseldorf Chief of Police, Dr. Hans Lisken and an document on the TREVI-Group.