An Editorial Comment
by Otto Diederichs
Today, it would be impossible to imagine a police force without data proces-sing facilities. Yet, information on the type and scope of police data processing is generally limited to a small group of experts. Information only comes to the attention of the general public when the data protection commis-sioners, in presenting their annual reports, point to the previous year’s scan-dals and issue their rebukes. This issue of CILIP attempts to shed more light on this area of police work and to make is more comprehensible.
Two Decades of Police Information Technology
by Heiner Busch
The Federal Republic’s shining hour in information technology was in 1972. The „information system police“ (INPOL) was launched with a total of 35 on-line terminals. Over the past two decades police information technology has continued to grow. The underlying concepts have been revised several times. Four key factors have remained essential to these efforts: new technological developments, police needs and interests, financial capacities and – although to a lesser extent – data protection. A survey article.
New Directions in Police Data Processing
by Martin Schallbruch and Sven Mörs
In the days of inflexible, complicated large computer technology in the 70’s, police use of data processing was largely restricted to search procedures. Now that smaller, less expensive and highly flexible systems have become available in the recent past, the police have begun to develop new fields for computer use. Beginning in the middle of the 80’s, special efforts have been devoted to the development of a universally accessible infrastructure, parti-cularly in the fields of networking and de-centralized data processing. More recently, even newer fields of application have been explored including case administration and command and control systems.
Information and Communication Technology in Brandenburg
by Heiner Busch
Little if any of the old information technology used by the police of the former GDR will continue to be used in the future. Antiquated equipment, new federal structures and interfacing with the information technology of the old states of the FRG are forcing the police in Brandenburg to completely renew their systems, as is the case with all the new states of the FRG. While, the other four new states have opted for completely adopting the systems of their partner states, the state of Brandenburg has decided to completely overhaul its technology and equipment. This will basically involve the use of small computers and communication networks. By the end of 1992, a total of 18.5 million marks will have been spent in the procurement of this new equipment.
The Automation of the Berlin Police
by Lena Schraut
Since the unification of the two halves of the city, the data-processing facilities are no longer capable of fulfilling the tasks they are intended to perform. All of the previously developed procedures were specifically designed for use in the western section of the city and do not interface with the technical facilities once used by the former People’s Police. Overcoming technical difficulties began in the fall of 1991. The article describes the problems and the potential for achieving technical solutions to the problems involved and provides a survey of current Berlin data-processing systems.
PIOS Files, Reporting Services and Clue Registries
by Lena Schraut
The author provides a survey of the most important police data systems, including statistics and brief annotations.
Data Protection and Police Data-Processing
by Claudia Schmid
Current debate on police data-processing centers around the use of undercover agents and technical devices such as „bugs“, directional microphonces and video cameras. But within the police realm of activities there are several other problems involving data protection that can only be effectively con-trolled and enforced when such essentials as right of access to police files, gaining access to specific areas and the mandatory obligation of public agen-cies to make materials available. One important prerequisite is knowing which information has been collected at all. The author, deputy commissioner for data protection in Berlin, describes the difficulties encountered in en-forcing data protection standards and measures, particularly concerning the new Police Act in Berlin.
The Establishment Order of the Police Data System APIS
Documentation with a commentary by Lena Schraut
The Toilsome Path Toward Police Data Collection
by Cordula Albrecht
Before the reforming of the police in Berlin daily journals were kept by hand and involved writing brief sketches of events that had taken place and vital data on the individuals involved. During the reform process that began in 1974, the police began to use computers. Gradually, the daily journals became a thing of the past. But, the computers bought to replace them proved to be a complete flop. Meanwhile, newer computers that are easier to operate have been purchased, but there are still too few to do the job. The general situation is compounded by the particular situation in Berlin since unifica-tion. The new generation of computers that are now in the procurement process will be almost completely installed in east side of the city. Now the communication lines do not exist.
Personal Computers as Workplaces for the Police
by Reinhard Borchers
Police networking with data processing systems such as INPOL, APIS and SPUDOK is nearing completion and on-line access to national data-banks such as the Alien Central Registry (Ausländerzentralregister) is now possible. Now, electronic data-processing systems are also being installed as individual solutions or as parts of locally established networks, as the police have discovered that personal computers can be useful and time-saving devices. Personal computers are only being used in places where it would be counter-productive to patch into a network system such as in the preparation of press releases, the creation of specialized and limited data-banks, the evaluation of balance sheets, etc. in the field of white-collar crime. The author, a police officer in the Hamburg Police Operational Command Center, examines the acceptance of personal computers and the workplaces they involve.
Fatal Police Shootings in 1991
by Otto Diederichs
In 1991, nine persons were victims of fatal police shootings. As is the case every year, CILIP presents its own statistics, evaluating police use of fire-arms.
The Schengen Agreement in France
by René Levy
France was the first signatory state to ratify the Schengen Agreement. The National Assembly approved the agreement by an overwhelming majority on June 6, 1991. On June 26, 1991 it passed in the Senate. And on July 25, 1991 its constitutionality concerning national sovereignty was ultimately confirmed by the Constitutional Council. This speedy ratification reflects the importance attached to the Schengen Agreement by France’s socialist administration, particularly France’s president. It has repeatedly been characterized as the keystone of European unification. An addendum to our special issue on the Schengen Agreement in Bürgerrechte & Polizei/CILIP no. 40.
The Stasi Dossiers – Documents of a Lie of the Century
by Tina Krone
On January 2, 1992 it became possible to gain reading access to the files on the State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst = STASI) of the former GDR. Thus, for the first time the mystery of a big secret was unveiled. The myth of the Ministry for State Security, ubiquitous until two years ago, dis-integrates into surveillance reports, operations plans, orders to undermine groups and other bureaucratic underclothing. The tightly woven interconnec-tions between the Socialist Unity Party, the state regime and the Ministry of State Security becomes immediately evident upon perusal of the documents. The study of these documents will bring more to the surface than mere secrets. A report on its potential and limitations.
The Motion of the Coalition 90/The Greens in Federal Parliament for Improving Access to the Stasi Files.