Military, police and the „new wars“
by Albrecht Funk
The declaration of a state of emergency and the deployment of military force within the states of Western Europe and North America is not likely. Nevertheless, the „war against terrorism“ has blurred the lines between internal and external security, of police and military. Like the imperial „policing“ of the British colonial armies, the current „Military Operations other than War“ are marked by the selective and arbitrary use of force.

EU crisis management: police in the shadow of the military
by Tony Bunyan and Heiner Busch
Because the EU wants to „be an unrestricted player in the international arena“, it has developed concepts, committees and resources for foreign military operations since 1999. Parallel to this, and also located within the second pillar, the EU has created a „non-military“ instrument, that is first and foremost a police apparatus, for crisis management.

Global law and order officers: police deployment abroad
by Stephan Stolle
Since 1989, German police officers have been taking part in international operations under mandates issued by the UN, the OSCE, the WEU and more recently the EU. There is therefore a close relationship to the military from the outset. This article provides a schedular overview of missions abroad and the forces deployed.

Border Guard Group 9 and Command Special Forces
by Stephan Stolle
With the specialised command forces, the traditional criteria differentiating between the military and police – the police acting against criminals within the country, the military against external enemies – are becoming obscured. The Border Guard Group 9 (Grenzschutzgruppe 9 – GSG 9) was created in 1972. This federal police anti-terror unit became famous after it stormed a Lufthansa aircraft in Mogadishu in 1977. The Command Special Forces (Kommando Spezialkräfte – KSK) was formed as a military combat unit in 1996. In both cases, the British Special Air Service (SAS) served as a role model.

Federal army within
by Stefan Gose
In the new „Defense Political Guidelines“ from 21 May 2003, the Federal Defense Ministry (Bundesverteidigungsministerium) declares that Germany’s federal army is now responsible for many tasks within the country, without exactly delineating what they are. Amongst other things, the guidelines allow for the shooting down of planes to prevent terrorist attacks.

The Swiss army helps within the country
by Heiner Busch
The deployment of the Swiss army on the Swiss side of the Lake of Geneva to guard the G8 summit of Evian was its biggest since 1945. Since the mid-1990’s, the military has increasingly been used within the country, however, only for the protection of objects and persons. At closer scrutiny though, the plans for the deployment of military in order to help create a new federal security police prove not to be a measure for civil disarmament. They will rather lead to the Federal Government gaining a strong arm of its own, which could in fact be used against demonstrators.

Liaison officers – shifting migration control forward
by Mark Holzberger
To avert the import of drugs already in the countries of origin and transit – that is the strategic approach for sending police liaison officers abroad. What (allegedly) works against the drugs trade – Brussels and Berlin contend – also helps to destroy migration and flight routes to Western Europe. The EU is trying hard to create an improved coordination of Member States‘ police and immigration liaison officers abroad.

The Foreign Intelligence Service comes to Berlin
by Wolf-Dieter Narr
Since 1949, when it was still called „Organisation Gehlen“, Germany’s Foreign Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst – BND) resided in its own small city of Pullach near Munich. Now, with its estimated 5,000 to 6,000 employees, it is being transferred to Berlin. This is not a mere change of location, but the positive revaluation of the foreign intelligence service in relation to military foreign policies enforcing Western economic and „security interests“.

The NPD, the Verfassungsschutz and the Constitutional Court
by Wolf-Dieter Narr
Two years ago, the Federal Government and the Upper and Lower Houses of Parliament lodged a request to ban the Neo Nazi Party NPD. The Federal Constitutional Court has stopped the proceedings in March. The reason for this move was that several NPD members who were set to give evidence in court were in fact paid informers for Germany’s Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (Verfassungsschutz). The closing of the proceedings has not led to the questioning of either the role of the informers, or that of the Verfassungsschutz as a whole.

Deadly police shots 2002
by Otto Diederichs
According to official statistics published by the Interior Minister’s Conference (Innenministerkonferenz – IMK), police has fired its guns 4,700 times last year. It says that in 42 cases firearms were used against persons and according to the IMK, six people died as a result. However, according to research by Cilip editorial staff, seven people have been killed.