Theme: Security architecture I – The networks within

Changing security architectures
by Norbert Pütter
Whilst the changing monopoly of power has long been characterised by an orientation towards prevention and centralisation, new tendencies can be detected since the 1990s. Under the motto „networking“, the separation of police and security services is being undermined, the armed forces are given new remits and hybrid organisations working on information exchange and cooperation are being institutionalised. In this process, the „new security architecture“ is not following the models of the planners, but is determined by intermeshing established interests. With the result that all apparati are strengthened, which in turn intensifies the problem of controlling them.

The new BKA law: towards a Federal Intelligence Service
by Fredrik Roggan
Whilst investigations by the Federal Crime Police Authority (BKA) were until now restricted to criminal prosecution in certain areas, the planned reform of the BKA law foresees a preventive role in the fight against „international terrorism“. In line with the extension of remits, it will have new powers as well: undercover investigations through major eavesdropping operations or online raids, but also standard powers that until now were given only to regional police forces are being harmonised, so that in future, BKA officers will be able to give orders banning people from public places or carry out stop and search operations. If the law is passed, it will reduce in particular the control function which a federal structure of the police force – as opposed to a centralised one – fulfils.>

Reorganisation of the Federal Police Force
by Albrecht Maurer
Since 1990, Germany no longer has internal borders and with the expansion of the Schengen area, the German EU external borders are being reduced to airports and the coast. A renewed organisational reform of the Federal Border Police (BGS), which was renamed Federal Police Force (BPol) three years ago, is emancipating the force from its original task of controlling borders. Its control powers are now concentrated inland. With the creation of a personnel pool for operations abroad, its role is furthermore expanding to becoming a foreign political instrument.

Deploying armed forces inland
by Norbert Pütter
Whilst the controversy surrounding demands to amend the German constitution to allow for armed forces to be deployed inland continues, a new concept of „defence“ is creating new facts for the military’s extension of remits: with the adaptation of the inland organisation, new contact points for the civil authorities are being created, and through a narrow definition of sovereign actions, even army jet flights to „gather intelligence“ that were deployed against demonstrators during the G8 summit are being trivialised as „technical mutual assistance“ between police and army. At the same time, the military refuses to give its binding commitment to provide assistance during catastrophic events. It is obvious that the reorientation of the armed forces to operate inland is meant to create a reserve army for home security.

Reform of the security services
by Martin Beck
Until 2009, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV) and the external intelligence service (BND) will have implemented far-reaching reforms. The reform of both services is alternately described as a „radical reorganisation“ or „modernisation“: structures will be simplified, inefficiency due to cooperation barriers reduced and their „service function“ will be enhanced. The core aim is increasing efficacy and adapting the services‘ structures and remits to fit seamlessly into the new federal security architecture.

Institutional cooperation between police and security services
by Jan Wörlein
Coordination groups, information boards, common centres – since the beginning of the 1990s, a series of new organisational forms of institutional cooperation between police and security services have been established. The secret nature of their activities alone keeps them systematically out of reach of public control mechanisms. The constitutional principle of separating police and security forces has meanwhile been redefined into a principle of cooperation.

Federal Administration Office as eavesdropping centre
by Mark Holzberger
The up to now rather inconspicuous Federal Administration Office (BVA) is not only working on better data exchange systems for German police and security services. Now also the interception of telecommunications by (initially) federal security services are intended to be centralised within the BVA. This process might even lead to a new and independent surveillance authority, like the US National Security Agency or the UK Government Communication Headquarter.

Non-thematic contributions:

Crime Mapping and geo-information use by the police
by Eric Töpfer
The entry of geo-information systems into daily police practice has passed largely unnoticed. Integrated by way of automated work processes and police intranets, computerised „crime mapping“ represents a qualitatively novel way of creating crime situation reports, but also represents a new challenge for democratic control and data protection.

Deadly police shots 200
by Otto Diederichs
According to last year’s internal ministers‘ conference, the police fired around 7.200 shots in 2007, in 46 cases targeting persons. Whilst the conference reported ten deaths, CILIP counted 12. In most cases, patrolling police officers fired the shots. In two cases, persons with obvious mental disorders were killed by special police squads.