The Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigation
by Hartmut Aden
The article describes the development of the Federal Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BKA): Its initial function as a technology and information center continued to grow. And the agency achieved greater importance since the 70’s as a central investigating body. New patterns of cooperation such as Schengen and Europol have given new meaning to the role of the BKA of an intermediary body linking national activities with other international policing agencies.
The Federal Border Guard
by Petra Pau and Katina Schubert
Since the beginning of the 90’s the Federal Border Guard has been undergoing a fundamental expansion and transformation process on the path to becoming a federal police force. It is to be developed into a force capable of dealing with illegal border trespassing, organized crime and illicit drug trading. It cooperates with state police and customs to form a „veil of security“ which also encompasses airports and central train stations. The article reviews the organizational and personnel changes and presents a brief survey of its current „performance record“.
The Customs Criminal Investigation Bureau and the Customs Police
by Heiner Busch
The Customs Criminal Investigation Division is the criminal investigation department of the customs authorities. Its authority extends to all divisions of activity pertaining to customs and import regulation – including drug trafficking, money laundering, arms exports, etc. In this context, the division is imbued with the same scope of authority as all police units with reference to criminal courts procedure.
INPOL-new and its consequences for Data Protection
by Antonia Wirth
The German police information system INPOL is to be completely restructured next year. The data files and applications are to be integrated into a data pool. Instead of functional attribution of data, future access to INPOL data is to be ordered according to hierarchical criteria. The article reviews the basic elements of the re-structuring and lists some of the consequences for data protection.
The Federal Criminal Investigation Division as a Paradigm – Criminal Investigation Centers in Switzerland
by Heiner Busch
Switzerland is governed by a federalist system of government and police organization. Within this framework the federal criminal investigation centers has grown out of the Central Police Bureau which was attached to the National Prosecutor until 1992. Since 1994 the criminal investigation centers were re-organized and expanded considerably in terms of staff personnel. Their investigative authority initially limited to cases involving international counter-fitting and drug trafficking are in the process of being extended to include both organized and economic crime.
Police Use of Weapons – A Statistical Survey
by Norbert Pütter
The author examines police use of firearms in Germany for the period from 1988 to 1997. Due to his sources police shooting is neither increasing or decreasing. Most of the fatal accidents take place in connection with unexpected incidents during the performance of normal duty activities. Fatal shooting accidents by special units are generally rare events. Most such fatal accidents are justified as having been in emergency defense or emergency aid situations.
The Future of Police Academy Training
by Thomas Weidmann
Throughout the FRG police leadership circles are receiving support from the ministries of the interior in their efforts to defend the concept of police internal training in police colleges as an element of their desire to maintain control over police training. Opening police culture to the civilian culture of society can only be achieved by externalizing police college training. An experimental college program as was planned in Bremen has been cancelled due to police pressure.
Documentation: Data-protection Demands on the red-green Coalition
In January of this year the German Association for Data-Protection (DVD) presented a list of demands which called for a fundamental change of policy in the field of data-protection on the part of the new federal coalition. The demands of the DVD not only pertain to security but also to data protection in the private sector of the economy and other fields.
The EU Action Plan Against Organized Crime
by Mark Holzberger
The article describes the implementation of important elements of the EU Action Plan: A Common Measure compels all member states to introduce a penal standard against criminal conspiracies into their penal codes. The EU Legal Assistance Agreement will legalize undercover police activities and telephone surveillance over national borders. New EU bodies will be created who will be subject to no parliamentary control and regulation. And even before the Europol Convention enters into force the expansion of the authorities of the agency being planned at the operative level.
The Fatal Shootings of Kurdish Demonstrators
by Wolf-Dieter Narr
On February 17th 1999 four Kurdish demonstrators were fatally wounded by shots fired by Israeli security personnel in the course of a demonstration before the Israeli general consulate in Berlin. The demonstration protested the arrest of Abdullah Öcalan. The article summarizes the scant secured information with reference to the fatal shootings and lists some of the most important questions in connection with the incident. The author calls for a detailed investigation of the incident and the circumstances which ultimately led to the shootings.